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Strategiczna lokalizacja w sercu EuropyStrategic location in the heart of Europe


Poland has been rapidly expanding its road, rail, air and sea infrastructure. Due to its strategic location at the intersection of the main transport routes on both the north-south and the east-west lines, Poland places a lot of emphasis on maintaining a strong position on the logistics map of Europe. Major projects such as the “Solidarity” Transport Hub, Polish involvement in the Belt and Road initiative, and the  North-south “via Carpatia” route testify to Poland’s position as a regional leader.  

Source: Own study based on the data of the General Directorate for National Roads and Highways

Strategic projects implemented in Poland:

1. CEF (Connecting Europe Facility, (pl.) „Łącząc Europę”)

Has replaced the EU's TEN-T program. According to the European Commission proposal,  as part of the “Connecting Europe Facility (CEF)” for the period 2021-2027, financing of investments in pan-European transport, energy and digital infrastructure network will increase by almost 50 percent. In June 2018, the European Commission proposed EUR 42.3 billion for this purpose.

2. The "Solidarity" Transport Hub

Is an upcoming transport hub based on integrated air and rail infrastructure nodes. The port is to be built 40 km from Warsaw in Baranów and based on existing schedules, the basic investment is planned to be completed by 2027.

3. National Access Point (pl.: Krajowy Punkt Dostępowy [KPD])

Is a service implemented under the European CROCODILE 2 project, which enables access to information on traffic conditions. This is the first stage of implementing the idea of the so-called "One stop shop", integrating data resources on country-wide traffic disruptions in real time, as well as data about parking areas located on the main road network connected with the DATEX II communication protocol.

4. Local Government Roads Fund (pl.: Fundusz Dróg Samorządowych) 

Transfers funds on a competitive basis for the purpose of co-financing infrastructure projects at the local government level. It is planned to allocate up to PLN 36 billion in the next  10 years.

5. National Road Construction Program for 2014-2023 (with perspective until 2025)

Ensures the completion of construction of the most important expressways, motorways and ring roads, as well as the implementation of investment activities that improve road safety.

6. The National Traffic Management System

A uniform, integrated teleinformation system that enables dynamic traffic management in the national road network. It also aims to integrate with ITS systems implemented by other road administrators, including urban areas.

7. National Road Safety Program 2021-2030

Aims to further increase the level of road safety, i.e. reduce the number of accidents, educate the public on road hazards, counteract excessive speed, improve the safety of pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists, as well as halve the number of fatalities and seriously injured on Polish roads.

8. National Railway Programme

Ensures the connection of Voivodeship centers with modernized railway lines by 2023, with a minimum average speed of 100 km / hr. for passenger trains, and the implementation of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) on the most important railway routes.

9. Railway Plus Programme

The programme will facilitate access to passenger rail travel, improve the conditions for business activity and road safety (rail transport will take over some  freight transport). This will mainly apply to towns with more than 10,000 inhabitants who currently do not have access to passenger or freight rail transport.

10. A Construction programme of a 100 ring roads between 2020-2030

The program defines the investment objectives and priorities for the construction of city ring roads on the national road network. It also indicates the sources of financing and investment tasks to be implemented.

11. A Strategy for Sustainable Development in Transport until 2030

The main goal of the national transport policy presented in this strategy is to increase the accessibility of all transport systems and improve the safety of road users as well as the efficiency of the transport sector by creating a coherent, sustainable, innovative and user-friendly transport system at a national, European and global level.

12. A Railway Station Investments Program for 2016-2023

One of the projects to be implemented under the "Strategy for Responsible Development until 2020 (with an outlook until 2030)", covering 188 railway station investments with a total value of PLN 1.4 billion. Thanks to actions taken at transport terminals, the program aims to improve the level of service for passengers and integrate the railways system with other types of transport.

13. A Development Programme for Polish Seaports until year 2030

c The main objective of the program is to permanently strengthen  the position of Polish seaports as leaders among the dockyards of the Baltic Sea basin. They are to play the role of key nodes and global supply chains for Central and Eastern Europe and contributes to Poland’s socio-economic development. 

14. The development of inland waterways for 2016-2020 (with an outlook until 2030)

Work is underway to increase the volume of goods and passenger transport by inland waterway. The priorities are:  the Odra Waterway (E-30), improvement of the navigation conditions of the Vistula river waterway, connection the  Odra - Vistula - Vistula Lagoon and Warsaw - Brest, expansion of the E-70 and E-40 waterways.

Transit through Poland

Transit traffic between Western and Southern Europe and the countries of the eastern part of the continent (including i.e. Estonia, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan) and China runs through Poland. Poland is crossed by routes of international importance, including:

Motorways and expressways (19.05.2021)
Motorways and expressways
Source: Own study based on data  from the General Directorate for National Roads and Highways and Wikipedia

Map ref. number
RouteA number of connected countries
1 Helsinki – Tallinn – Riga – Warszawa/Gdańsk6
2Berlin – Warszawa – Minsk – Moscow – Nizhny Novgorod4
3Berlin/Dresden – Wrocław – Katowice – Kraków – Rzeszów – Lviv – Kiev 3


Gdańsk – Grudziądz – Toruń – Łódź – Katowice – Żylina – Ostrava

Transshipment terminals in Poland
Terminale przeładunkowe
Source: Statistics Poland (PL:GUS) - Intermodal transport in Poland in 2019

Maritime transport

Poland has four maritime ports of major strategic importance to the Polish economy:


1. The Port Szczecin

Is a universal port that supports both general cargo (containers, oversized cargo) and bulk cargo (coal, coke, grain, etc.). It can be used by ships with a maximum length of 215 m and a maximum draft of 9.15 m. In 2018, cargo turnover in the port of Szczecin accounted for 10.2% of the turnover in Polish seaports.

2. The Port Świnoujście

Is located directly on the Baltic Sea coast. It can be used by ships with a maximum length of 270 m. and a maximum draft of 13.5 m. The port houses a terminal handling dry bulk cargo, mainly coal, ore and agricultural products (a terminal specializing in transshipment of agri-food goods). An important function of the port is the handling of general cargo reloaded using  conventional methods, as well as in containers and in the ro-ro system. The port in Świnoujście has a ferry terminal with five bays which serve passenger-car and car-rail ferries on the route to Sweden. Świnoujście’s share of  cargo turnover of Polish seaports in 2018 was 18.3%. In terms of the regular connections, they are to the Scandinavian countries, Great Britain, Ireland and Russia as well as container feed connections to the largest base ports of- Hamburg, Bremenhaven and Rotterdam.

3. The Port Gdynia

In 2018, the turnover in the port of Gdynia accounted for 22.8% of the total turnover of Polish seaports and amounted to 20,974.3 thousand tones, reaching the highest level recorded since the year 2000. The port specialises in handling general cargo, mainly unit loads transported in containers (it has two modern container terminals) and in handling rolling units (terminal for ro-ro units). Ships with a maximum length of 340 m and a draft of up to 13.0 m may call at the port of Gdynia.

4. The Port DCT Gdańsk and its Deepwater Container Terminal

The annual capacity of the terminal is 3,000,000 TEU and the storage area is 55,000 TEU. It can be used by ships with a maximum length of 425 m and a maximum draft of 15 m. The port of Gdańsk has the largest share of cargo turnover of all Polish seaports, which in 2018 amounted to 46.2%.

In 2020, the cargo turnover in seaports amounted to 88.5 million tones, i.e. 5.7% more than in 2019. Domestic sea turnover amounted to 2.8 million tones (33.5% more than in the previous year) and accounted for 3.1% of the total turnover. In the international maritime traffic, a total of 85.7 million tons of cargo were transhipped (96.9% of the total turnover), i.e. by 6.6%. less than in 2019.

Air transport

There are thirteen international airports in Poland. The largest airport - Warsaw's Okęcie (Chopin Airport), alongside the airports in Katowice and Gdańsk – also serve also as an important transshipment hub for air cargo. The “Solidarity” Transport Hub in Baranów is scheduled to be completed by 2027 and will be the largest hub in this part of Europe. 

A cargo terminal has been operating at Warsaw Chopin Airport since the second half of 2017.
Air transport
Source: Own study based on  data from the Polish Civil Aviation Authority for the year 2019.

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